Injuries in sport may involve muscle, ligaments, or bone, with lower limb injuries accounting for >50% of all sports injuries, and predominant joints involving the knee and ankle.
The occurrence of sports injuries are much more prevalent during competition as compared to injuries that occur during training. Football has the highest occurrence of injury among any American sport due to its fast pace rhythm and obvious and contact and collision between players. A direct hit to the knee or shoulder can end a career in seconds. In sports where there is less or no direct contact between players, injuries may be the result of rapidly changing positions, sudden deceleration, and incorrect jump-landing mechanics.
Although increased efforts are made to avoid the occurrence of sport injuries whether through the development of prevention programs, heightened insight into injury mechanisms, or load monitoring techniques in athletes, there is no significant decrease in sports-related injuries over the past two decades (1).
Phases of injury recovery
The importance of defining the different phases of injury recovery is used to determine the progression of any given rehabilitation program and it should be based on functional criteria instead of time-lapse. Additionally, understanding these phases emphasizes the critical role of collagen supplementation after defining its mechanism of action.
Whatever the injury-type, there are multiple phases of recovery including the acute phase of injury "Destruction", where muscle fibers and small blood vessels tear, filling the injured area with blood and inflammatory cells infiltrate from blood to initiate an inflammatory response. Next, a repair phase takes place where fibroblasts proliferate into collagen to produce connective tissue at the injured site. It’s a combination of connective tissue and muscle fibers that repair the injured muscle. Finally, the remodeling phase takes place, which acts to regenerate muscle fibers while connective tissues continue to mature. When the tissue repairs itself, the mixture of new muscle fibers and connective tissue is randomly oriented while treatment during this phase can assist the new tissue in regenerating into organized parallel lines.